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秘魯 Peru

秘魯 Peru

咖啡於 18 世紀中葉通過鄰國厄瓜多爾傳入秘魯,但直到 19 世紀末才進行商業出口。

精品咖啡出口(包括經過認證的咖啡)於 1997 年才開始並逐漸增加,秘魯目前已是世界第七大生產國。然而,從 2013/14 年和 2014/15 年開始,出口下降了超過 40% (產量下降了超過 30%),很大程度上是由於咖啡銹病的影響,這對國家產生了重大影響,因為其中很大一部分的咖啡沒有使用殺蟲劑或殺菌劑。秘魯目前是世界上最大的有機咖啡出口國,擁有約 90,000 公頃的有機認證土地。這主要是由於較小的生產商缺乏對化學品投入的投資資源;然而,在咖啡銹病危機之後,很難說這種情況會持續多久。

如今,約有 223,000 個秘魯家庭已投入約 425,000 公頃土地用於咖啡生產,另有三十多萬人從事咖啡行業。生產仍然集中在該國北部的卡哈馬卡地區,那裡種植了該國一半的咖啡。其中超過 70% 是 Typica,其次是 Caturra (20%) 和其他品種 (10%)。其他地區也生產咖啡,例如南部的庫斯科和胡寧。

如前所述,秘魯今天的生產規模非常小,平均每個農場不到 3 公頃。伴隨這種結構,他們面對與其他拉丁美洲小規模生產者相關的問題,例如難以獲得借貸以及生產和加工管理效率低下等。所以合作社的成立就是要幫助生產者降低風險,並提供途徑讓農民獲得對收穫至關重要的資源,目前,秘魯的大部分咖啡都是從小農場收集的,散裝在一起,然後通過這些合作社處理和銷售,其中最大的合作社有 2,000 名農民和 7,000 公頃土地。

儘管生產規模非常小,但由於四分之一的秘魯咖啡生長在海拔 1,200 到 2,000 米之間的 28 種微氣候中,因此仍有很大的潛力改善咖啡於每個區域的特性,並發掘更多小型的精品咖啡生產商。

Coffee was introduced to Peru in the mid 18th century via neighbouring Ecuador but was not commercially exported until the late 19th century. 

Specialty exports (including certified coffees) began in 1997 and have gradually increased, contributing toward Peru’s current status as the 7th largest producer in the world. However, from 2013/14 and 2014/15 exports are down over 40% (with production down over 30%) due in large part to the impact of coffee leaf rust, which has had a major impact in this country where a great percentage of coffee is grown without pesticides or fungicides. Peru is currently the world’s largest exporter of organic coffee, with some 90,000 hectares certified organic. This has primarily been due to smaller producers’ lacking resources for investment in chemical inputs; however, in the wake of the coffee leaf rust crisis, it is difficult to say for how much longer this will be the case.

Today, around 223,000 Peruvian families have committed some 425,000 hectares to coffee production, and an additional 300,000+ individuals are reliant upon the coffee industry in some way. Production remains centred in the region of Cajamarca in the north of the country, where half of all the country’s coffee is grown. Over seventy percent of this is Typica followed by Caturra (20 percent), and others (10 percent), though other varieties are grown as well. Coffee is also produced in other regions such as Cusco and Junín to the south.

As mentioned earlier, Peru’s production today is overwhelmingly small scale, with the average farm coming in at just under 3 hectares. Along with this structure comes those problems typically associated with small-scale producers across Latin America, such as difficulties accessing credit and inefficiencies in managing production and processing. Cooperatives help producers mitigate risks and provide access to resources that are crucial to bringing in the harvest, and at present, much of Peru’s coffee is collected from small farms then bulked together before being milled and marketed through these cooperatives, the largest of which represent up to 2,000 farmers and 7,000 hectares. 

Nonetheless, with a quarter of Peru’s coffee grown between 1,200 and 2,000 meters in a cited twenty-eight microclimates, there is great potential to improve this regional identity of coffees and develop greater traceability and identify small exceptional producers.

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